Pope Clemente III (1187 – 1191) promoted the Third Crusade, which three kings took part in: Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany, Phillip II of France, and Richard Lionheart of England.
Barbarossa (“red beard” in Italian) received his name from the amber hue of his hair. He was known for being brave and valiant. After defeating the armies of many of his enemies, he was the first to arrive at the walls of Jerusalem. However, he could not fulfil his quest because he drowned in a river on June 10th, 1190.
His two allies, Richard and Phillip, had to return to their respective countries due to the conspiracy of John Landless and the conflicts between France and England.
Frederick I (Fridrich), Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, was elected King of Germany in Frankfurt on 4 March, 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March. He was also crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1154, and finally crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June, 1155.