Gaius Julius Caesar (July 13, 100 BC–March 15, 44 BC), was the greatest soldier and political leader of ancient Rome. During his lifetime, the frontiers of the empire were pushed forward and secured; Rome was transformed from a Republic into a government with a single ruler, and Cesar was its first dictator.
He wrote some of the finest works of history in Latin, describing the campaigns fought in Gaul and the Civil Wars, he was an architect, a mathematician, and one of the ancient’s world orators.
A politician of the popular tradition, he formed an unofficial triumvirate with Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus which dominated Roman politics for several years, opposed in the Roman Senate by optimates like Marcus Porcius Cato and Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus.
His conquest of Gaul extended the Roman world to the North Sea, and he also conducted the first Roman invasion of Britain in 55 BC. The collapse of the triumvirate, however, led to a stand-off with Pompey and the Senate. Leading his legions across the Rubicon, Caesar began a civil war in 49 BC from which he became the master of the Roman world.